Selasa, 13 Maret 2012


. Kepercayaan terjadi apabila terbukti akan Perbuatan 
.Jangan pernah ada penghiyanatan..
. Apabila kita ingin di pertahankan karena dipercya..
. Kepercayaan, Susah didapat apabila kita berbuat "BOHONG"
. Maka dari tu..
. Pertahankan Kepercayaan jadi Bahan Pokok Utama kita..
. Tak ada lagi yang Seindah "KEPERCAYAAN".
. Jadikanlah Diri muue Menjadi Orang yang "JUJUR"

Jumat, 06 Januari 2012

Teori Madelein Leininger

Madeleine Leininger received her basic nursing education at St. Anthony's School of Nursing, Denver, CO and graduated in 1948. In 1950 she earned a Bachelor of Science from Benedictine College, Atchison, KS; in 1953 a Master of Science in Nursing from Catholic University, Washington, DC; and in 1965 a PhD in Anthropology from the University of Washington, Seattle. She is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and holds an LhD from Benedictine college.
       Dr. Leininger is the founder of the Transcultural subfield of nursing. She is Professor of Nursing and Anthropology, Director of the Center for Health Research, and Director of Transcultural Nursinng Offerings at Wayne State University. She has held both faculty and administrative apppointments in nursing education. She has published extensively. 
       During the mid 1950s,-Madeleine Leininger experienced what she describes as cultural shock while she was working in a child guidance home in the midwestern United States. While working as a clinical nurse specialist with disturbed children and their parents, she observed recurrent behavioral differences among the children and concluded that these differences had a cultural base. She identified a lack of knowledge of the children's cultures as the missing link in nursing to understand the variations in care of clients. This experience led her to become the first professional nurse in the world to earn a doctorate in anthropology, and led to the development of the new field of transcultural nursing as subfield of nursing. 
        Leininger first used the terms "transcultural nursing," "ethnonursing," and "cross-cultural nursing" in the 1960s. In 1966, at the University of Colorado, she offered the first transcultural nursing course with field experiences and has been instrumental in the development of similar courses at a number of other institutions. In 1979, Leininger defined transcultural nursing as. 
        A learned subfield or branch of nursing which focuses upon the comparative study and analysis of cultures with respect to nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs, and values with the goal to provide meaningful and efficacious nursing care services to people according to their cultural values and health-illness context.
She also defined ethnonursing as.
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Ø        The major concepts of her theory are cultural, cultural value, cultural care divercity and universality, cultural care, world view, socical structure, enviromental contex, folk health system, health, profesaional health system, care, caring, cultural care preservation, cultural care accommodation, and cultural care reparrering. She defines each of these concepts and their interrelationship provide the basis for the Sunrise Model of this Theory. 
B. Paradigma Nursing by Leininger Madelein
    1. human
        Humans are individuals or groups yamg have values
​​and norms which are believed and are useful to determine the options and take action. According to Leininger, humans have a tendency to maintain the culture at any time wherever he is.

    2. health
        Health refers to the welfare state that is culturally defined values
​​and practices and reflect the ability of individuals and groups to showcase their cultural activities of everyday life, and lifestyle advantages.

     3. environment
         Environment refers to the totality of the circumstances, situations, or experiences that give meaning to human behavior, interpretation, and social interaction in the physical environment, ecological, social, political, and cultural constructions.

     4. nursing
         Nursing learning refers to a humanistic and scientific profession and discipline which is focused on human care phenomena and activities that aim to assist, provide support, facilitate, or enable individuals or groups to obtain their health in a way that benefits are based on culture or to help people people to be able to face obstacles and death.
      Culture Care :
Slide 7
l        The sunrise model presents four levels of focus which move from the cultural and social structure through individuals, groups and institutions in diverse health systems to nursing care decisions and actions that  are cultural care preserving, accommodating and repatterning. The model also indicates the need to move from knowledge generation throught  substantive knowledge to application of the knowledge. 
Slide 8 In discussing the model, Leininger presents the idea that care patterns and processes may be universal or diverse. Universal care indicates care patterns, values, and behaviors that are common across cultures. Care diversities represent those patterns and processes that are unique or specific to an individual, family,or cultural group. Leininger believes care diversities are greater in number than are universal care patterns. 
Slide 5
Ø        Madeleine Leininger so it can be concluded from all the theories which he possessed was the theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Uniersality is of significance in a society that is becoming more and more aware of the cultural diversity within its boundaris. While this theory does not provide specific direction for nursing care,
Slide 6It does provide guidelines for the gathering of knowledge and a framework for the making of decisions about what care is needed or would be of the greatest benefit to the client. Leininger has clearly identified what has been a major deficit in our provision of nursing care and
provided a road map to begin to fill the gaps created by that deficit. 
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